(手抄稿 第九册 p155)

The remains of that vomit-like food enter from above through the umbilical cords opening and generate growth. Through the thickening, quivering, elongated, and globular stages, the embryo is completely transformed into a fetus with arms and legs. The placenta encloses its arms, legs, and cheeks. Reeking like an old rag used for mucus, the stench is unbearable.
【所有食味,从母腹中入自脐孔,而为资长,渐成羯罗蓝,頞部陀,闭尸健南,手足微动,体相渐现。手足面等胎衣缠裹,犹如粪秽,】

p. 158

Enshrouded in pitch darkness, it moves up and down. The bitter, sour, pungent, salty, spicy, and astringent tastes of food affect it like hot coals. Like an intestinal worm, it feeds on filthy fluids; it finds itself in a swamp that oozes rotting filth. Its lifeforce is unstable. The heat of its mother’s body torments, heats, and overheats it all in three degrees: slightly, moderately, and greatly. It experiences distressing, intense, violent, and unbearable agony. Whenever its mother moves a little, moderately, or greatly, it also moves in the same way, constrained by five bonds. It experiences agony that is distressing, intense, violent, unbearable, and almost inconceivable, as though it had been thrust into a pit of burning cinders.
【生臭变臭猛暴黑闇,不淨坑中上下游转,以诸苦酸粗咸辣淡,犹如火炭。食味所触,犹如苍蝇,以不淨汁而为资养。如坠不淨,臭秽炽然,淤泥之中命根非坚。又母身内所有火力,煎炙遍炙极遍煎炙,烧热遍热极热遍烧热,烧然遍然极遍烧然,受诸猛利粗恶难忍,非所悦意极大苦受。如如其母转动,遍动极遍转动,如是如是如被五缚,亦如投掷煻煨坑中,受诸猛利粗恶难忍,非所悦意,难以为喻,极大苦受。」】

前面是经上的,不仔细解释。我们真正修行的话就要学这个,自己真正要用功的时候,你就这样先把那个道理你去弄懂,弄懂了就想。如果你想不出来,简单极了,简单 (p156) 极了!哦,现在都不大简单,我们小的时候比较好;现在的那些卫生设备,说起来叫卫生,说起来好!这样。所以以前我曾经遇见一个老师,那个老师就告诉我们:「现在人真颠倒,邪见增长,我们那时候,处处都是修行。它现在装饰得,每一个地方装饰得真美,乃至于那太平间,人死了以后,哎呀!装饰得、还要画得就像那个……。一切的进去的时候,没有一点点丧事的气氛让你,只是因为你的亲人的感受。」我现在想想越想越对,我们小的时候,哪裡有现在的卫生设备,这没有的—坑!你一坑一跑得去,跑得老远那个苍蝇飞起来,那个臭气啊!这样,然后你看那个蛆在裡边……。我们在母胎当中就这个样,说实在的就这个样!

啊!所以你一定要用这种方法,实际上呢比牠还要苦。欸,牠这个蛆,在这个粪坑裡只是臭一点,它不会逼、不会炙。我们在这个地方不但又臭又葬,而且又压又冷、又寒又热,没有一个不具足,这样。不过,但是并不一定完全如此喔,有很多如果生,他的善业的话,他在这个地方母胎当中是很安乐的。但是这个地方我们不要去想善业,就是说,如果说你不如法地去修苦的话,将来你总有一天,生了天下来的还是这个;这个还是最好的,你还要堕落地狱当中去。所以这个地方的特质,你要把最苦的想出来;想了以后,然后呢,被苦的力量推动你拼命去跳出来,这是他的目的,这个我们要重点要了解的。所以 (p157) 他下面是解释,解释我也只把它唸一遍。

Similarly, it is said that the fetus is harmed in the womb when the mother eats too much or too little; eat food that is too oily, pungent, cold, hot, salty, sour, sweet, bitter, spicy, or astringent; indulges her sexual desires; runs too much or too fast; jumps or swims; or sits or squats in front of the fire. It is also said that the fetus is confined by the stomach and held firm by the intestines,
【如是其母,若受饮食太多太少及食太腻太乾太冷太热,咸淡苦酸及太甘辛,若行欲行,若太急走,若跳若倒,若住火前,或蹲居坐,亦说于胎起大痛苦。生藏上压熟藏下刺,】

啊!上面是压,下面是刺,你就像坐在那个,坐在那个我们常常说「如坐针毡」,就这个样。坐在针毡,只是我自己坐在上面,上面还有一个泰山压顶,唉!实在是一无是处。

as though it were bound by five bonds or impaled on a stake. There is even further suffering when the infant emerges from the womb and is born into the outside. Candragomin’s 《Letter to a Student》 says:
【如被五缚插之尖标。从胎产时及产出时,所有众苦,亦如《弟子书》云:】

住胎是这样,出来的时候也是一样。出来的时候怎么样?

It is crushed slowly, like sesame seeds in an oil press, and then somehow it is born. Nonetheless, those who do not lose their lives immediately must settle for pain. The body that dwelt and grew in that filth is smeared with the wombs slime and has an unbearably foul smell. Memory is lost upon being inflicted with such torment, which is like having an inflamed boil burst or being on the verge of vomiting.
【「此渐如硬压油具,压迫其次方得生,然未尔时即捨命,唯是受苦业力强,住不淨中颠倒身,湿烂裹胎极臭秽,猛逼切痛如溃疮,犹如变吐宿念捨。」】

出来的时候,就像压油一样,不晓得你们看见过榨油?现在的榨油用化学提炼,我们以前那个榨油,那真是!先把油摆在锅子裡面烧,烤得热得不得了,先把他压扁,压扁了以后呢烤热, (p158) 烤了以后放一个笼裡边,然后用大铁鎚去压,那个不得了的力量。现在我看见人家锻钢筋,以前老法的锻钢筋拿了大铁鎚叭一鎚下去,把那钢筋弄断了。他那个榨油的人,那工人也是一样,那手都是这么粗,打那个大铁鎚,那我们被出生的时候就是用这种方法,要现在那个铁鎚,不要说碰到一下,你轻轻的那个铁鎚放下来压在你脚指头上的话,压的你哇哇叫,现在那出生的是那么苦法!这是处处地方告诉我们。

The 《Descent into the Womb Sūtra》 explains the meaning of these Words:
【此诸文义,如《入胎经》云:】

上面是解释:开始继续的念下去。

Thus, when all its major and minor limbs have developed, the fetus stirs in a frightful, pitch-dark place of urine that oozes rot, has an unbearable stench, is contaminated by excrement and urine, and continually dripping with foul-smelling filth, blood, and putrid fluids. Energy arising from the maturation of previous karma makes its feet turn up and its head turn down toward the opening. With both arms drawn in, it is slightly, moderately, and utterly smashed between two machines of bone. The distressing, intense, violent, and unbearable agonies cause all the limbs of the body—painful as fresh wounds—to turn blue. All of the body’s organs become hot. Since the uterine slime is now much reduced, the surface of the body dries out, and so the lips, throat, and heart become parched.
【「次彼渐生一切肢节,从其粪厕腐烂滴坠,不淨暴恶生臭变臭,黑闇可怖,粪尿熏粘臭气垢秽,血水常流,疮门之中,由其先业异熟生风,吹足向上令头向下,两手缩屈被二骨轮,逼迫遍迫周遍逼迫,由诸粗猛难忍非悦,最大苦受令其身分悉皆青瘀,犹如初疮,难可触著,身一切根悉皆楚痛,极秽胎垢遍粘其身,由乾渴故,令其唇喉及以心脏悉皆枯燥,】

p. 159

Confined and full of insufferable dread, it emerges—however difficult this may be—when drawn out by the influence of causes and conditions, by energies arising from the maturation of previous karma. Once outside, the air burns like caustic liquid on a wound; the mere touch of a hand or a cloth feels like the cut of a sword. It experiences distressing, intense, violent, and unbearable agony.
【住此迫迮难忍苦处。此由因缘增上,宿业异熟生风吹促至极艰辛,始得产出。生已无间,被外风触如割涂灰,手衣触时如利剑割,当受 (p159) 粗猛难忍非悦极大苦受。」】

唉!这个出生的时候,住胎的时候这么痛苦,出生的时候又这么个难受!所以这个经上告诉我们出生的时候,本来在母胎当中,这个非常嫩、非常嫩,然后一旦出来碰见外面那个,触的时候,那个痛苦,痛苦极了,痛苦极了!这东西我们不太容易……其实真的说起来,我们还是可以很容易地……。当你有的时候,身或者烫伤了,或者特别的因缘碰伤了,外面那个表皮碰掉了,那个肉在的时候,啊!那个外面的不要说碰到一点什么东西,那个风吹上去也痛得不得了,对不对?一点的水,如果一点盐水,或者什么的话,你简直无法忍受地痛苦。那我们出生的时候,这个感受就是这样。所以这个婴儿一下地哇啦哇啦哭,就是这个原因。哇!他那时候痛苦极了,心裡嘛有绝端的恐惧,身上嘛有绝大的痛苦。诺、诺、诺!这个是我们无法感受的,如果佛不讲的话,我们还根本不知道,就是这个样。

It is said that when taken up onto someones lap and the like, or touched with hot or cold objects, the newborn baby experiences distressing, intense, violent, and unbearable agony, like a flayed cow being eaten by vermin or a leper whose lesions are struck with a whip.
【又说如牛剥皮。被虫所食,及如癞人遍身溃烂,加诸鞭挞极受楚切。又产已无间,取怀抱等及寒热触,亦当受诸粗猛难忍,非悦意苦。】

然后呢,大人看见很欢喜把他抱起来,抱的时候,他碰到任何一个地方,碰到的无非 (p160) 是……所以那个小孩子一生下来,哭啊!就是这样,就是这个原因,他痛苦嘛!每一样东西都是难以忍受的,都不是好的。

Among the eight types of sufferings, regard this first type, along with the eighth type the suffering of the five appropriated aggregates, as the most crucial and meditate upon both of them.
【八苦之中,特于此初及于最后,须慇勤重修。】

这个实际上这两个最苦,生苦跟死苦,就偏偏这两个东西我们还感觉不到。所以不是佛讲,我们实在不知道啊!实在不知道啊!

Therefore, as explained before, you should repeatedly investigate them with discerning wisdom and meditate on them.
【故如前说,当以观慧数数观察,而善修习。】

所以我们必定要把前面告诉我们的观察慧,这个生,然后呢老—生、老。这个前面我虽然略略地唸过,所以唸过的,因为现在的重点让我们认识这个知见,那么然后呢你们正修的时候,现在我们先把那个道的次第的纲要认识,这个是这个重要。平常在我们平常如果你要懈怠了,或者什么,提不起来的时候,那个时候自己认真先去看它。当然不是等到提不起来,就是事先你先看完,看完了万一你觉得要懈怠的时候,然后翻翻它。哎哟!就想到:一懈怠,那对不起,那就停在这个地方。

所以这个世间你了解了,没有第二条路好走的。往往有人说,唉呀,弄弄不行, (p161) 要退转去了。假如退转去安乐的话,我第一个退转,我绝对不愿意跑得来受这个罪。因为我现在了解得清楚、明白,没有第二条路好走的。现在你虽然苦,你拼命努力有跳出苦的机会,你现在这一点小苦都受不了,退转,后面是无边的大苦等在这裡。现在这么小苦你受不了要退转,你那个无边的大苦就受得了了吗?那这是个最重要的概念。为什么我们要退转呢?就是糊涂!所以这些都是真正帮忙我们的。所以说,在这裡虽然不讲,对你们修行这个是最重要的,最重要的!现在我们继续下去,反正每一个地方,我们晓得它的功效在什么地方。如果生这种病的时候,马上跑得来找这个药,这个药是对我们的正对治。那么生晓得了,老:

(ii) The suffering of old age There are five points to contemplate: 1) A handsome body deteriorates: your backbends down like a bow; your head is white like the drawa (spraba) grass flower; wrinkles cover your forehead like the lines of a cutting board, In ways such as these, youth breaks down and you become unattractive.
【◎ 思惟老苦分五。盛色衰退者,谓腰曲如弓,头白如艾,额如砧板,皱纹充满,由如是等,衰其容貌令成非爱。】

第一个老了,老了以后,平常你站起来,站得很挺,到那个时候腰也站不起来了,像弓。唉!我现在已经深深感觉到了,晓得要坐得好好的,坐了一下,啊!这腰痠背痛那没 (p162) 办法,就这样,就下来了。其实,其实你们没有老,我们在这裡很多人未老先衰啊已经,真可怜哪,赶快好好努力啊!尤其是心理上面,有一些人,这个是更重要啊,更重要啊!然后呢「头白如艾」,到那个时候看看那个头髮都白了,这样。「面额如砧板」,砧板什么样子?平常我们那个皮肤非常细嫩,那个砧板的样子,那个刀痕切得都是,到我们老了,这个面就是这样。尤其是女性这个地方特别注意,不要说:「唉呀,这个修道很苦啊!」你想到这裡,也是唯一的一条路,这是唯一的一条路,回去没退路好想的。「皱纹充满」,这个「容貌令非可爱」,并不一定是女性,凡是你欢喜这个的话,那这一点对你特别有价值。第二:

2) Physical strength and vigor deteriorate: for example, when you sit down, you drop like a sack of dirt cut from a rope; when you rise up, it is like uprooting a tree; when you speak, you are incoherent; and when you walk, you stumble.
【气力衰退者,谓于坐时,如袋断索,起如拔树,语言迟钝,行步缓慢等。】

第二个气力衰了,坐下来的时候如断袋索。什么叫断袋索啊?那个袋啊这样,它平常的时候那个绑住的,然后呢,袋一放「噗通!」一下,人老了就是这样的,跑到那个凳子上就「卡塔!」一下坐下来了。唉!站呢实在站不动。平常我们坐好好的,站起来啊,站不起来,唉!站起来是千难万难。现在你们不大会感觉得到的,但是生病的时候就是这个状态,哎呀, (p163) 这个站起来那个脚裡面实在是没有气力啊!讲话的时候迟钝,行步的时候迟缓。

3 ) The senses deteriorate: your eyes cannot see forms clearly, and so forth; and the power of memory and the other faculties wanes due to extreme forgetfulness, and so on.
【诸根衰退者,谓眼等不能明见色等,重忘念等,减念力等。】

然后呢「诸根衰退」,这个是特别讲身根,气力没有了,讲裡边的根衰退了。「眼」是「不能明见」,「重忘念等」,念力衰退等,就是这样。到了那个时候,近视了、远视了,远也看不见,近也看不见,唉,真是!就这样,就这样。然后呢,很多事情回头就忘记掉了,要记也记不住。尤其现在大家都是:「哎呀!等到慢慢地到那个时候再去修。」老的时候你就是这个样,你还能修吗?年轻力壮把那个,都浪费在不必要的上头。在家人还情有可原,他本来不知道;出了家还忙这些不相干的事情,真可惜啊!然后忙那个不相干的事情,等到老了以后,那死路一条,这个情况啊!

4) Enjoyment of sense objects fades: you have difficulty digesting food and drink, and cannot enjoy desirable objects.
【受用境界衰退者,谓受饮食等,极难消化,又无堪能受诸欲尘。」

这这是裡边的。外面的境界呢,对受用的,以前一直觉得很好,对不起,你难消化,你没办法堪忍。哎呀!你很想,那偏偏不行。然后,

5) The deterioration of life is painful: as your life nears exhaustion, you head rapidly toward death. Think about these points again and again.
【寿量衰退苦者,谓寿多灭尽,速趣于死。应当数数思惟此等,】

这个五样东西不断地、好好地去思惟啊!下面引经上面告诉我们。

As the 《Extensive Sport Sūtra》 says: As aging progresses and we pass a certain point,
(p164) 【《广大游戏经》中亦云:「由老令老坏少壮,】

这个「老」,这个法,「老」这个这一个特质,使得我们每一个人慢慢地趋向于老,把你的盛年少壮那个慢慢、慢慢地破坏掉了。

We are like a tree struck by lightning,
【犹如大树被雷击,】

就像一棵长得好好的树,被这个雷击得支离破碎。

Withered by old age like a terrible, decrepit house. O Sage, speak quickly about an escape from old age.
【由老令耄朽屋畏,能仁快说老出离。】

这个老是这样啊!所以世尊告诉我们这个老相。所以你了解了,赶快趁现在能作的时候,赶快跳出,跳出这个痛苦啊!

Age enfeebles the masses of men and women
As a windstorm strips vines from a grove of sal trees.
Age steals our vigor, skill, and strength—
It is as though we are stuck in mud.
【诸男女众由老枯,如猛风摧娑罗林,老夺精进及勇势,譬如士夫陷淤泥。】

一切的不管是若男若女,就被这个老所枯,这个枯像什么?像大风吹那个娑罗林,这个娑罗林树很脆的,被猛风吹过去,摧枯拉朽一下统统破坏掉了。我们现在这个要想作的精进、勇猛的心情,到那个时候一点都没有了。到那个时候就像什么?陷在那个淤泥裡边,真是进退两难哪!

Age makes attractive bodies unattractive.
Age steals our glory and our strength.
Age steals our happiness and subjects us to insults.
Age takes our vigor, age begets death.
(p165) 【老令妙色成丑陋,老夺威德夺势力,老夺安乐作毁訾,老夺光泽而令死。」】

这么个严重法。

Jen-nga-wa said: The pain of death is horrible but brief; how horrible is aging!
【懂哦瓦云:「死苦虽重,而时短促,此老最重。」】

死苦虽然厉害,但是它很短呀!真的说起来这个老最严重。下面那个祖师讲的话,这是千真万确的。

Ga-ma-pa said: “It is well that aging happens little by little. If it happened all at once, it would be intolerable.”
【迦玛瓦云:「老渐渐至,故稍可忍,若一时顿至,实无能忍之方便。」】

幸好这个老是慢慢地来的,通常一个人四十以后渐渐开始就来了,来了。到七十、到八十,这几十年当中,如果这个老的形象,几十年当中一口气来的话,没有一个人能受得了,没有一个人能受得了,这是千真万确的。平常我们忽然间生了个病,你其实简单得很咧,忽然间生了病倒在那个地方的话,唉呀!你这个痛苦之难受,就是这样。我们往往生到那个病的话,想到简直是不想活了,为什么?他受不了嘛!所以假定这个老一口气来的话,没有一个人受得了。

不想则已,有的时候,我现在已经有这个感觉,有的时候真是!千真万确的,不管 (p166) 是你哪一方面,刚才前面所说的每一样东西,我倒不大在乎我的头髮白,也不在乎我的面孔上的皮肤像砧板一样。可是的的确确坐下来的时候,叫我慢慢吞吞,我就坐在那裡「卡塔!」就坐下来;站起来的就像拔树一样,站了个半天,实在好辛苦。然后呢跟你们讲,有的时候是清楚明白得不得了的事情,咦?讲到口边就是那个名字就记不起来,想了个半天不晓得,想不起来。而且眼前的人喔,就这么眼前的人,这是念力是衰退会到这种程度啊!你们无法想像的,会是这样的一个严重法。

所以老如果一口气来的话,你真是没有一个人能受得了,可是我们现在还居然安之若素,居然还说还是慢慢地来,怎么能慢哪?现在只有唯一的年轻力壮的时候。所以我现在看见你们在座的一些年轻同修,居然躲在后面,猜猜反正轮不到我,偷懒哪,是最大的损失啊!反过来说,我看见那些年轻的同修,我真讚歎、真高兴,我现在老了没办法了,我只有赚一点什么?随喜功德。

所以我一早起来,欸!看见对面那个同修他真好,他的灯光总是……。我一早起来最大的欢喜,就是看见那个灯光。哎呀,讚歎啊!我说我虽然是老了,这个人还在修年轻啊!而我成就讚到年轻的功德。另外呢,另一个人在那儿,我在那裡已经起来了洗了个半天,他还在那边拖萝踏拉在那个地方,钟已经敲完了,敲鼓了,他还在那儿,还在刚刚洗 (p167) 脸。以前我心裡面总觉得这个人怎么样,现在我也学会了,唉!我觉得这个人真可惜啊!我可不要这样啊,他可策励我啊!欸,好啊!真好啊!我但愿你们也能如此。所以你不要为人家而惊,不要为人家而生烦恼。总之,一方面对你自己增长,一方面珍惜你自己呀!处处地方要把前面告诉我们这个道理,你多思惟;你多思惟了,你就开始可以努力了。现在我们下面看苦:

p. 160

(iii) The suffering of illness. Here there are also five points to contemplate:
【◎ 思惟病苦分五。】

苦也分五个,把它唸一下。我想这个苦大家都容易体会得到,所以唸一下你们自己去体会它。第一个:

1) Illness changes the nature of the body: the flesh wastes away, the skin dries out, and so forth.
2) Pain and anguish increase and are seldom absent: the elements of the body—water, earth, air, and fire—are not in equilibrium and fluctuate chaotically, causing physical torment, which in turn produces mental anguish. You spend night and day in this state.
【身性变坏者,谓身肉销瘦,皮肤乾枯等。增长忧苦多住忧苦者,谓身中水等诸界,分不平均增减错乱,身生逼恼,心起忧痛而度昼夜。】

这是第二个。

3) There is no desire for attractive things:
【不能受用悦意境界者,】

(p168) 平常的时候,你要眼睛也好,吃也好、玩也好,那个时候都不行了。

as you are told that desirable things harm those who are sick, you cannot indulge in them freely; and you do not have the range of movements and postures that you would wish.
4) You must have recourse, however unwillingly, to unpleasant objects: the sick are forced to take unpalatable medicine, food, drink, and the like; and have to rely on harsh therapies that involve such things as being burned with fire or being penetrated with instruments.
【谓若有云,诸可意境于病有损,虽欲享受而不自在,如是诸威仪道,亦多不能随欲。诸非可意境界受用,虽非所欲须强受用者,谓诸非悦饮食药等,须强饮用,如是火炙及刀割等,诸粗苦事,皆须习近。】

前面是说你欢喜的,对不起,不行。你不欢喜的偏偏要,就这样。

5) You lose your vital energy: it is painful to realize that your illness is terminal. Reflect with care upon these points.
【速离命根者,谓见病难治,便生痛苦,当于此等审细思惟。】

同样的。

As the 《Extensive Sport Sūtra》 says: Hundreds of illnesses and the pain of rampant disease afflict us, just as humans oppress wild animals.
【《广大游戏经》云:「多百种病及病苦,如人逐鹿逼众生,】

就像人,打猎的人赶那个鹿一样,这个病,这个病来害我们也是这个。

Regard the beings overwhelmed by old age and disease and quickly speak about escape from suffering.
【当观老病坏众生,惟显速说苦出离。】

赶快啊!要从佛那个地方,告诉我们这个苦,从这个地方想办法跳出来啊!

In deep winter, wind and great blizzards Take the vigor from the grasses, shrubs, trees, and herbs. In the same way, disease takes the vigor out of living beings; It breaks down their faculties, physical appearance, and strength.
【譬如冬季大风雪,草木林药夺光荣,如是病夺众生荣,衰损诸根及色力。】

(p169) 一样!

It will drain a great fortune in wealth and grain to the last. Disease constantly humiliates living beings; It harms them and is contemptuous of beauty. It torments them, like the sun beating down from the sky.
【令尽财穀及大藏,病常轻蔑诸众生,作诸损恼瞋诸爱,周遍炎热如空日。」】

这个文字也不必解释,这个文字自己仔细地观察,反正像这种东西自己都体会得到的,很容易。体会得到的,体会;体会不到的,信得过佛,努力去思惟、观察。现在目前这个时候最切要的一件事情,我们一定要把这个概念提起来。 最后,生、老、病、死当中,「死」:

(iv) The suffering of death Again, there are five points to contemplate:
1) You are separated from objects that are fine and attractive.
2) You are separated from close relatives who are fine and attractive.
3) You are separated from companions who are fine and attractive.
4) You are deprived of a body that is fine and attractive.
5) As you die, you experience terrible pain and anguish. Reflect on these repeatedly, until you become disenchanted.
【◎ 思惟死苦分五。谓捨离圆满可爱财位,捨离圆满可爱亲族,捨离圆满可爱朋翼,捨离圆满可爱身体,死时当受猛利忧苦,乃至意未厌此诸苦,当数思惟。】

只要我们的心念当中,对前面这个真相不认识,因为不认识而不厌离,乃至于贪著。在这种状态,要不断地思惟,现在我们不忙别的,真正要忙的是要忙这个啊,这个要注意啊!我们现在这裡要求学问,不要把它看成学问看,它是目的在这裡。你能够在这个上面,那就是你的大学问,否则你认识得再多是没有用啊!

How do the first four of these constitute suffering? You suffer upon seeing that you are losing these four excellent things.
【前四为苦之理者,谓见当离此四圆满而发忧苦。】

(p170) 这个就是说财位、亲属等等。

The 《Extensive Sport Sūtra》: You die and pass on to another life, and in so doing you are forever separated from people who are beautiful and beloved. Like a leaf fallen from a tree, or the current of a river, you will never return and meet them again. Death makes the powerful weak. Death takes you away, as a river carries away a log. People go alone, unaccompanied, with no companion—powerless because their karma has its effects.
【《广大游戏经》亦云:「若死若没死没时,永离亲爱诸众生,不还非可重会遇,如树落叶同逝水。死令王者无自在,死劫犹如水漂木,独去无伴无二人,自业具果无自在。】

这个是自己的业力所感得的,你没有办法可想的。

Death seizes myriad living beings, as sea-monsters seize swarms of creatures, as an eagle seizes a snake, or a lion an elephant, as fire takes hold of grass, trees, and swarming creatures.
【死擒多百诸含灵,如海鲸吞诸众生,犹龙金翅象遇狮,同草木聚遭猛火。」】

这个死来的时候,就是这样的一个状态,不管在任何状态当中,一旦死来了,好,就这么一条路,就这么一条路。这个是生老病死,这个四样,今天这个地方说一下。

请翻到《菩提道次第广论》第161页。八苦已经讲了生、老、病、死,每一个裡边分五个项目,每一个裡边分五个项目。这个是多去思惟、观察,那么那个时候,会产生强烈的一种感受,说人生无非都是痛苦。那么下面另外四个,那就是眼前我们处处地方,感受这个三种,最后一个实际上呢,这就是根本,最重要的。现在一个一个地我们讨论下去,看文:

p. 161

(v) The suffering of encountering what is unpleasant. Here there are also five points to contemplate:
(p171) 【◎ 思惟怨憎会苦分五。】

也分五样。

1) Merely encountering your enemies, for example, causes pain and anguish.
2) You dwell in fear of being punished by them.
3)You fear they will speak maliciously, without kind words.
4) You dread death.
5) You worry that you will go to a miserable realm after death for having acted in ways contrary to the teaching. Reflect on these.
【谓如遇怨敌,便生忧苦,畏其制罚,怖畏恶名,遭非讚颂,畏苦恼死,违正法故,畏惧死后,堕诸恶趣。当思此等。】

世间理想的事情,偏偏不容易找到。那么不理想的呢,我们不希望的呢,偏偏排遣不开。怨的冤家,瞋的,你所讨厌的,偏偏要让你碰到。我们眼前想想看,的确随时随地没有一样东西称我们心。那么这个裡边分五个项目。遇到怨敌,就生忧、苦—心裡面忧愁,然后呢,怨敌互相伤害,身上面苦恼。这忧苦也可以分身心、两方面,也可以总和身心而言。

那么又怕他,这总的,怕他伤害你,怕他伤害你,这第二个。由于这样,同时呢「怖畏恶名」,这个怨家,大家都—你说我不对,我说你不对,那么种种的对我们的诽谤。然后呢,「遭非讚颂」,讚跟颂是我们希望的,在这种情况之下,他偏偏不但得不到,而且伤害你。还有呢,怖畏恼死,不但是眼前实际上的名誉,实质上的伤害,而且乃至于因此而送掉性命。送掉了性命呢,「违正法故」,还要怕死后堕落恶趣,这样。这个五个方 (p172) 面。怨的呢偏偏碰到,反过来你希望的嘛,偏偏要别离!

(vi) The suffering of separation from what is pleasant. Again, there are five points to contemplate. When you are separated from a very dear relative, for example:
1) In your mind, sorrow arises.
【思惟爱别离苦分五。谓若捨离最爱亲等,由此令心发生忧慼,】

第一个忧愁,心裡边真是……。

2) In your speech, you lament.
【语生愁歎,】

心裡面嘛,忧慼;开起口来嘛,唉呀,真不晓得什么是好!

3) You bring harm to your own body.
4) You are saddened, recalling and missing the good qualities of what you have lost.
【身生扰恼,念彼功德,思恋因缘令意热恼,】

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